Histamine, Histamine Receptors, and their Role in Immunomodulation: An Updated Systematic Review
Mohammad Shahid*, 1, Trivendra Tripathi2, Farrukh Sobia1, Shagufta Moin1, Mashiatullah Siddiqui2, Rahat Ali Khan3
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2009
First Page: 9
Last Page: 41
Publisher Id: TOIJ-2-9
Article History:Received Date: 4/12/2008
Revision Received Date: 20/12/2008
Acceptance Date: 22/01/2009
Electronic publication date: 4/3/2009
Collection year: 2009
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Histamine, a biological amine, is considered as a principle mediator of many pathological processes regulating several essential events in allergies and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates different biological activities through differential expression of four types of histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R) on secretion by effector cells (mast cells and basophils) through various immunological or non-immunological stimuli. Since H4R has been discovered very recently and there is paucity of comprehensive literature covering new histamine receptors, their antagonists/agonists, and role in immune regulation and immunomodulation, we tried to update the current aspects and fill the gap in existing literature. This review will highlight the biological and pharmacological characterization of histamine, histamine receptors, their antagonists/agonists, and implications in immune regulation and immunomodulation.