Histamine, Histamine Receptors, and their Role in Immunomodulation: An Updated Systematic Review

Mohammad Shahid*, 1, Trivendra Tripathi2, Farrukh Sobia1, Shagufta Moin1, Mashiatullah Siddiqui2, Rahat Ali Khan3
1 Section of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Department of Microbiology
2 Department of Biochemistry
3 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College & Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, U.P., India

© 2009 Shahid et al.;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Microbiology, JN Medical College & Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002, U.P., India; Tel: +91-571-2720382; Fax: +91-571-2720382; E-mails:,


Histamine, a biological amine, is considered as a principle mediator of many pathological processes regulating several essential events in allergies and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates different biological activities through differential expression of four types of histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R) on secretion by effector cells (mast cells and basophils) through various immunological or non-immunological stimuli. Since H4R has been discovered very recently and there is paucity of comprehensive literature covering new histamine receptors, their antagonists/agonists, and role in immune regulation and immunomodulation, we tried to update the current aspects and fill the gap in existing literature. This review will highlight the biological and pharmacological characterization of histamine, histamine receptors, their antagonists/agonists, and implications in immune regulation and immunomodulation.

Keywords: Histamine, histamine receptors, H4-receptor, Antagonists, Agonists, Immunomodulation.